I am working in compilers under Prof.Priti Shankar. My project is on Slicing Java program using Soot , which is a decompiler for Java. Demo
The courses I have taken
Compiler Design
Computer Architecture
Embedded Systems
Discrete Structures
Miracle 
A mini Relational Database Management System
Design of Flash File System on Motorola Power PC
Design of compiler backend  producing x86 code from intermediate C code
Java Bytecode Slicer demo & report
Learning Computer Science
These are the books I have in my collection( most of them as ebooks ). Most of
them are available online. If you cannot find them , mail me.
These are lesser known materials. For standard references see online courses below. Those
tagged with 'notes'/'online' can be found on the web ( details would be posted here )
Recommended books to start with
Algorithms
Data structures and Algorithms  Aho, Hopcroft, Ullman
The Design and Analysis of Computer Algorithms  Aho, Hopcroft, Ullman
Algorithms  A creative approach  Udi Manber
Algorithms + Data Structures = Programs  Wirth
Programming Pearls  Bentley
Programming Interviews Exposed
Discrete Math
Elements of discrete structures  C.L.Liu
Discrete Mathematics  Rosen
How to solve it  Polya
Theory of Computation
Computers and Intractability 
Garey and Johnson
Theory of Computation 
M.Sipser
Systems
Operating System  Gary Nutt
Database system implementation  Garcia Molina
File Structures  Michael J. Folk
Networking  Larie L Peterson , Bruce Davie
Many universities have put their material online
http://ocw.mit.edu/OcwWeb/ElectricalEngineeringandComputerScience/index.htm
Videos 
These are some good videos available online covering basics of computer science.
For those in IISc , some of them are internally hosted (mail me to get the
links).The following courses at these universities are recommended to start
with. For actual links see
http://freescienceonline.blogspot.com
MIT ( SICP , Algorithms, Systems, Linear Algebra )
Aduni ( Algorithms, Discrete Math, How Computers Work , Web )
Operating Systems videos from RPI
compiler videos from MIT
programming language videos by Dan Grossman
architecture videos by Susan Eggers
U.Berkley also has some videos, though it can be only streamed and not
downloaded
Some math related videos.
Dijkstra  Mathematical Excitements
Dijkstra  Power of counting Arguments
Real Analysis by R.Vittal Rao
http://researchchannel.org  Many
of the videos are good. (like Tarjan's talk on datastructures, Rugina's
talk on alias analysis, Whaley's talk on Binary Decision Diagrams)
Algorithms 
1) Foundations of Computer Science (CSC221 material)
2) Efficient Algorithms and Intractable Problems ( CS170 ) Luca Trevisan
3) Design and Analysis of Computer Algorithms (CMSC 451 ) David M. Mount
4) Algorithms and complexity  Herbert Wilf
5) Algorithms  Robert Sedgewick
6) Algorithm Design Manual  Skiena
7) Algorithms and Data Structures (IARCS course material) Venkatesh
Raman,IMSc
8) Algorithms + DataStructures = Programs  Wirth (only oberon version available
online)
9) Ian Parberry's "Lecture notes on Algorithm Analysis and Computational
Complexity"
10) Problems on Algorithms  Ian Parberry
11) Jeff Erickson's courses at UIUC  compgeom.cs.uiuc.edu/~jeffe/ [suggested by Sumant]
12) http://www.cs.pitt.edu/~kirk/algorithmcourses/ [suggested by Debmalya]
13) Data Structures and Algorithms  Y.Narahari
Computer Architecture 
Other than the well known Hennessy Patterson, Hayes, Hamacher
book  William Stallings  computer Architecture
notes  Computer Architecture: summaries notes the web from [liacs.nl]
notes  Modern Microprocessors A 90 Minute Guide! by Jason Patterson
notes  Pipelining Review by Mark Smotherman
book  Processor Architecture  Chapter4 of Randall E.Byrant's book
paper PC Processor Microarchitecture  A Concise Review of the Techniques Used
in Modern PC Processors  Keith Diefendorff
book  Art of Assembly Chapter 4  Basic CPU Design [webster.cs.ucr.edu]
paper The Microarchitecture of Superscalar Processors  Sohi
notes  COMP620 Class Notes on Computer Architecture D.Salomon
paper  Compilation Techniques for Exploiting Instruction Level Parallelism, a
Survey  Laura Pozzi
paper  Limits of Instruction Level Parallelism  D.Wall
book  Advanced Computer Architecture  A design space Approach  by Sima ,
Fountain, Kacsuk
Systems 
book Computer Systems  A programmers perspective Randal E. Bryant /
David R. O’Hallaron
book Elements of File Structures  Shashi K. Gadia
book  A short introduction to operating Systems  Mark Burgess
notes  Operating Systems study questions (CS354)
book Understanding the Network  A Practical Guide to Internetworking 
Michael J. Martin
paper Butler Lampson, Hints for computer system design
book  Jon Bentley, Writing Efficient Programs
book  Advanced Linux Programming  Mark Mitchell, Jeffrey Oldham, and Alex
Samuel
book  The C Odyssey Unix  The open boundless C  Meeta Gandhi
book  PC Assembly Language  Paul A. Carter
book  The Art of Assembly  online
Theory of Computation 
Some notes from web
1) Ars Digita University Lecture Notes  Shai Simonson
2) Theory of Computation (CSCI 3434)  Karl Winklmann, Carolyn J. C. Schauble
3) Models of Computation ( COS 126)
4) Lecture notes from University of kentucky
Some papers
1) Incomputability  C.A.R.Hoare and D.C.S.Allison , Computing Surveys 1972
Computer Science Classics 
Vannevar Bush's As We May
Think
Butler Lampson's Hints for Computer System Design
D.L. Parnas, On the Criteria To Be Used in Decomposing Systems into Modules
Turing's On Computable Numbers, With an Application to the Entscheidungsproblem
Math is Fun 
Introduction to Probability ( Charles M. Grinstead / Laurie Snell)
Induction and Analogy in mathematics  Polya
Notes on Combinatorics  Polya, Tarjan,Woods
Applied Combinatorics  Tucker
What is mathematical logic  Crossley
The Mathematical Century  Odifreddi
Basic Concepts of Mathematics (Zakon)
Martin Gardener  Flatterland
Euler the master of us all
A Mathematical Bridge
The story of 'i'  An imaginary tale
100 greatest problems of elementary mathematics  Their history and solution (Dorrie)
Elementary Calculus: An
Approach Using Infinitesimals
Introduction to Information Theory
notes: some beautiful proofs regarding a) infinitude of prime numbers b)
Derangements c) Generating functions d) Sums of series
which were derived by Euler are presented in [Euler the master of us all].
Irrationality of e , Group theoretic theorems like orbit stabilizer theorem are
presented in an interesting manner is presented in [A Mathematical Bridge].
Logic, Turing Machines, Halting Problem is presented in [Crossley]. The first
chapter is a must reading before you attempt to learn Theory of Computation.
Flatterland gives more insight into dimensionality (like what happens if our
world is two dimensional or four dimensional)

Computer Science Bibliographies http://liinwww.ira.uka.de/bibliography/index.html
Lectures, Surveys, papers
http://wwwcs.unipaderborn.de/fachbereich/AG/agmadh/WWW/english/scripts.html
Classic Texts http://www.zafar.se/bkz/home/classictextsincomputersc.html
Reading List http://john.regehr.org/reading_list/
Stanford CS Library http://cslibrary.stanford.edu/
Nice Articles You and Your Research by R.W.Hamming